However, most of the club companies today do pretty much subscribe to length specifications for their clubs which are relatively close to each other. Most drivers for men made by companies who sell their clubs through pro shops and retail golf stores are usually 45 inches or 45.5 inches long. Most women's drivers are 44 or 44.5 inches.
However, fairway woods do vary in length as well as the length change from wood to wood. Some companies make their men's 3-woods to be 44 inches, some 43.5, and some 43 (women's fairway woods are usually one inch shorter than the corresponding men's wood). In addition, some companies make their fairway woods to change in length by a half-inch between the 3-, 5- and 7-woods, while others choose an increment of three-quarters of an inch and still others prefer an incremental change of 1 inch.
Most men's irons are made to be pretty close to the same length, starting with the 3-iron at 39 or 39.5 inches, and all other irons decreasing in length by a half-inch per iron down through the set. Again, women's irons are usually one inch shorter per club than men's.
The "standard" length of clubs has changed over time, growing longer. In the late 1970s to early 1980s, for example, the "standard" length for a men's driver was 43 inches, for 3-woods 42, and 5-woods 41 (with women's woods one inch shorter).
Back then, the typical 3-iron for men was 38.5 inches with all other irons decreasing in half-inch increments to the wedges.
Why have golf clubs gotten longer over time? Because golf companies believe it helps them sell clubs. Companies have believed that the longer the length of the club, the greater the distance the club can be hit. While this is true with the short irons, as the clubs get longer and lower in loft it is a fact that the percentage of off-center hits increases, as well.
Custom clubmakers will determine the proper club lengths for golfers by first starting with a measurement of the distance from the golfer's wrist to the floor. They compare this measurement to a chart which lists club lengths for each wrist-to-floor dimension. Because golfers vary tremendously in height and arm length - the two important factors for determining a "comfortable length" for the golfer - there is no way that all golfers can play their best with the typical standard lengths offered in standard-made clubs which are simply bought off-the-rack in pro shops or golf retail stores.