In almost all cases, playing the wrong ball results in loss of hole in match play and a two-stroke penalty in stroke play. (The rare exception involves swinging at a wrong ball that is moving in water inside a water hazard.)
In stroke play, the offender must go back and replay any strokes with the correct ball. Failure to correct the mistake before teeing off on the following hole can result in disqualification.
The player whose ball was incorrectly played by a competitor or partner should drop a ball as close to the original spot as can be determined.
In the rulebook, wrong ball situations are covered in Rule 15.
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