Everyone knows that the player who is "away" or "out" plays first. But when it comes to putting greens, many recreational players get the rule wrong. They believe that someone off the green always plays before someone who is on the green. And that's incorrect.
It doesn't matter if you're on the green or off - if you're farthest from the cup, then you play first. That means you might have to putt before your partner plays from a bunker - if your putt is longer than your partner's bunker shot.
If your partner is short of the green, 30 feet from the cup, but you're on the green, 40 feet from the cup, you play first.
The player who is farthest from the cup plays first (see Rule 10), regardless of where that player is.
But note that in stroke play, there is no penalty for playing out of order (it's simply an issue of etiquette). If your group prefers the guy in the bunker play first, even though he's not out, that's fine. But the by-the-book procedure is for the player who is out to play first, even if that means putting before someone who is off the green plays their shot.
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